Have you noticed how children develop quickly? Every day they acquire new knowledge and skills, gradually turning from funny babies into mature, formed personalities. And, sometimes, they surprise us with their interesting life position, an adult view of things, sincere emotions.
Children go through stages of development, the study of which is engaged in child psychology. Its main task is to identify and explain the features of the child's behavior characteristic of each age period. Psychology of children is a complex and important science.
The found patterns allow parents to better understand what is happening in the baby's soul, because the term "psychology" in Greek sounds like "psyche" — soul, "logos" — teaching.
Human interaction with the outside world begins before birth and continues throughout life. Psychological processes are especially intense in childhood. During this period, patterns of behavior and relationships with parents, other children, grandparents are formed.
These relationships are formed during pregnancy. It is important for a child in the womb to hear the calm voice of his mother, to feel her touch and stroking.
After birth, the psychological bond between mom and baby is strengthened. Mom becomes not only a person who cares, feeds and protects, but also gradually turns into an object for imitation for a girl and the main source of positive emotions for a boy.
Psychologists recommend moms:Do not concentrate communication with the child around household matters.
See also: Methods of parenting: 10 effective methods of parenting
The formation of a child's personality is influenced by both parents equally, but in different ways. The task of the pope is to become a role model for the boy and protection for the girl, to instill moral principles, to provide a sense of stability, integrity and value of the family.
In the first years of life, the kid believes that dad is someone cheerful and reckless, who can throw up to the ceiling or make a funny face. The role of the "holiday person" during this period is convenient and pleasant for both parents and the baby.
In the process of growing up, the role of the father changes. For a boy, he becomes a kind of "guide" to the world of men, and for a girl, he becomes the first spiritually close person of the other sex.
It is important for Dad to build close communication with the child, but do not forget about the educational role. Maintain a balance of rigor and affection, control and trust, restrictions and rewards.
Grandmothers, grandfathers, aunts, uncles help children develop behavioral models in society. Thanks to communication with adult relatives, the baby's horizons expand, he learns to build relationships with other people, realizes his role and place in the family.
It is important that relatives who often come into contact with the child understand their responsibility in the formation of his personality and their rules of upbringing do not run counter to the rules of parents.
Communication with other children helps the child to learn:
to build friendly relations in the team;
share your life experience and perceive someone else 's;
solve conflict situations, resist aggression, protect other children;
respect different life positions and opinions.
Children 1-3 years old do not separate other children by age. They play with the same pleasure as with the same kids, and with older guys. A little older (4-5 years old), they begin to actively interact with the same age, strive to take possession of the same toy, fight for leadership in the company and the attention of adults. A social structure appears in their games, which gradually becomes more complicated. By the age of 5-6, children prefer collective games to individual ones.
Young children constantly make new friends, the period of friendly relations between them is short. With age, these connections become more permanent. Social connections play an important role in the psychology of the child.
Parents should contribute to the formation of the child's social circle. The unifying factors may be hobbies, sports, extracurricular education.
Conscious speech is formed by the age of two years of the baby. At first, it has an extremely simplified structure. The child uses 2-3 words to describe his desires and needs.
By the age of five, the structure of spoken language almost completely corresponds to that of adults. Children imitate the intonation of their parents, often use their expressions. Therefore, it is important for parents to pay attention to the purity of their own speech, avoid slang, dialectisms, profanity. The more beautiful you speak, the more beautiful your child will speak.
The process of developing the child 's intelligence was described by the Swiss scientist J. Piaget. He identified four consecutive stages:
Sensorimotor. In time, it coincides with the period of infancy. The child learns to coordinate the information received from various sensory organs, monitors objects, tries to get them, grab them, i.e. the volume of arbitrary motor skills increases.
Preoperative thinking. Accumulation of knowledge about the surrounding world. The child does not yet express his needs with words, but tries to do it with behavioral reactions.
Specific operations. Speech, problem-solving abilities, and logic are rapidly developing. The child acquires knowledge about space and time, quantitative indicators. This stage begins at about the age of six and lasts 3-4 years.
Formal operations. The child is able to understand cause-and-effect relationships, formulate his own hypotheses.
The duration of the stages of intelligence development is individual. Therefore, parents, on the one hand, need to monitor the timeliness of the child's acquisition of intellectual skills. And on the other hand, do not panic if he is late somewhere.
Experts distinguish 2 types of feelings:
Basic — appear immediately after birth. With the help of them, the baby reacts to changes in the environment, expresses an attitude towards close people.
Acquired ones are more complex feelings: friendship, love, gratitude, fear, resentment. They are formed under the influence of behavior and values instilled by parents, as well as on the basis of information from the outside world.
The development of feelings forms the concept of a child's emotional intelligence. Is he able to recognize other people's emotions, empathize with them? The combination of positive and negative feelings forms the concept of morality.
Parents should explain to the child the emotions that he feels, but does not yet realize. And also to teach to manage them — to control, to express to the place, to choose the form of manifestations.
Parents' knowledge of the psychology of children will help them cope more easily with the difficulties of upbringing. Learning to understand your child is not an easy process, but it is quite possible for each of us. Maximum attention, trusting relationships, consistency of actions and moderation in reactions are the main principles for achieving mutual understanding between parents and children. May you succeed!July 25, 2019 2022-11-27 2020-03-25 Rate the article on a 5-point scale Did you like the article? Share it on social networks
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